Lushan, or Mount Lu, in the north of China’s Jiangxi province, is one of the country’s most famous mountains, bordered by the Yangtze River to the north, Nanchang city to the south, and Lake Poyang to the east. It is known for its grandeur, steepness and beauty, as well as its world-famous Sea of Clouds, which is also home to the local Mist Tea. In 402 AD, Pure Land Buddhism was founded by Huiyuan on the mountain’s northwest slope.
Lushan served as a summer resort for Western missionaries such as Absalom Sydenstricker, whose daughter Pearl S. Buck wrote dozens of books on China, including the acclaimed The Good Earth. It was also once dubbed the “Summer Capital” of the Republic of China, since Chiang Kai-shek also frequently spent his summers here.
Among the mountain’s many popular attractions are: the Immortal Cavern, Five Old Man Peaks, Three Tiled Springs, Luling Lake, Lushan Hot Springs, Lushan Botanical Gardens, Bamboo Temple, Guanyin Bridge, and Peach Blossom Garden. The White Deer Grotto Academy, one of the most famous institutions of higher learning in ancient China, is also located here.
During the Long March, in 1935, a battle took place here between the Communist and Republican forces; and in 1937, Zhou Enlai met here with Chiang to discuss a united front against the ongoing Japanese invasion. After the war, Mao Zedong convened three large Lushan Conferences of senior party officials here — in 1959, 1961, and 1970. The building which hosted them is now a museum (below).
- Visited: 1996
- UNESCO: 1996